It is located at 13º 9 ’47 “south latitude and 72º 32′ 44” west longitude. It forms part of the district of the same name, in the province of Urubamba, in the department of Cuzco, in Peru. The nearest major city is Cuzco, the current regional capital and former capital of the Incas, 132 km away.
The mountains Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu are part of a great orographic formation known as batolito de Vilcabamba, in the Central Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes. They are on the left bank of the so-called Urubamba Canyon, formerly known as Quebrada de Picchu. At the foot of the hills; surrounding them runs the Vilcanota-Urubamba river.
The Inca archaeological site is halfway between the peaks of both mountains, 450 meters above the level of the valley and 2438 meters above sea level. The built area is approximately 530 meters long by 200 meters wide, with 172 buildings in its urban area. Biogeographically it is located in the ecoregion of the Peruvian Yungas.
The ruins, properly speaking, are within an intangible territory of the National System of Natural Areas Protected by the State (SINANPE), called the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, which extends over an area of 32,552 hectares, , 92 km²) of the Vilcanota Urubamba river basin (the Willka mayu or ‘sacred river’ of the Incas).
The Historical Sanctuary protects a series of biological species in danger of extinction and several Inca establishments, among which Machu Picchu is considered main.
Text from: wikipedia